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Margrethe II   Bio
14.1.1972 >

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Bourup EGEDE
.4.2021 >

- Greenland Banknotes, 1803 > Issues


History: 985 ISL; 1261 NOR; 1380 DNK; 1721 ISL; 1775 DNK; 1941-45 USA; 1953 DNK;
1979 Self Gov.; 21.6.2009 Expanded Autonomy
The first banknotes attributable to Greenland were issued in 1803. Currency History: GRL currency 1803 -1967; DNK 1967 >
Greenland presently uses Denmark banknotes as its currency. It had proposed its own banknotes in 2007 but since dropped the idea.
-   Catalog
Denominations Dates Issuing Authority


lP.A1, S.1  1/8 Rigsdaler (12 Skilling)1803 A1 P.A1 - P.A4 S.1 - S.4 1/8 - 1 Rigsdaler 1803 Kongelige Grønlandske Handel
Greenland P.A10 A5 P.A5 - P.A10 S.5 - S.10 6 Skilling -
 5 Rigsdaler
1804 Handelsstederne I Grønland
Greenland remainder A11 P.A11 - P.A35 - 6 Skilling -
 6 Rigsdaler
1819-56 Handelsstederne I Grønland
P.A36 - P.A41  1 P.A36 - P.A41 - 25 Ore - 5 Krone 1874-87 Handelsstederne I Grønland
P.1 - P.5 2 P.1 - P.10 - 50 Ore - 1 Krone 1888 -1911 Handelsstederne I Grønland
P.14 3 P.11 - P.14 - 25 Ore - 5 Krone ND(1913) Handelsstederne I Grønland
P.21a 4 P.15 - P.21 - 5 - 100 Kroner ND(1926-67) Handelsstederne I Grønland
Kreditseddel Kun Gaeidende I


P.M7 5 P.M5 - P.M10 S.77-S.82 1 - 20 Skilling ND(1941-42) U.S. Proterctorate,
(Military) Trade Certificate
WWII Scrip Issues 6 P.M1 - P.M4 SB.901
- SB.907
1 Ore - 1 Krone ND(1941) U.S. Proterctorate,
WWII Scrip Issues


Images Needed 7. P.UNL SB.951-
50, 100 Kroner 1944 Egedesminde Emergency Local Issue


Images Needed 8. P.UNL S.83 10 Kroner 1910 Ivigtut Kryolithbrud
Images Needed 9. P.UNL S.85- S.87 5 - 50 Kroner ND(1954-61) Nordafar A/S, Færingehavn.
Greenland presently uses Denmark banknotes as its currency.
It had proposed its own banknotes in 2007 but since dropped the idea.


Greenland's (Kalaallit Nunaat) history leads us to refute one of the earliest geographic facts we learned in our childhood, tInuit Settlershat Columbus discover the New World. In 2500 B.C. palaeoeskmo (prehistoric Eskimos) hunters migrated to Greenland from Canada, about 1500 miles away. Their descendants with such anthropological designations as Independence Culture I, Sarqaqs, Independence Culture II, Dorsets and Thule Eskimos spread throughout the island over subsequent generations.

European colonization of Greenland started in 982 A.D. by Iceland when Viking explorer, Eric Thorvaldson, known as Eric the Red arrived with his small party. Born in Jaeren, Iceland in 950 A.D. Thorvaldson was exiled from IcelaEric the Rednd for three years when he traveled west seeking the land that Norwegian Gunnbjorn Ulfsson had sighted 50 years earlier. He initially settled the southeast coast of Greenland and after completing his exile he returned to Iceland. The name Greenland is said to have been established by Eric, the worlds first "Ad man", to attract potential settlers who were looking for fertile lands. It worked and in 985 A.D. Eric returned to Greenland with 450 colonists establishing the eastern settlement of Brattahlid, near the current town of Julianehab. He became the ruler of both the east and west coast colonies where they farmed, raised cattle and traded hides and walrus tusks with Europeans. Climate records indicate that this was a "warmer period" in Greenland which may have helped them with farming and livestock. Eric had a daughter, Freydis and three sons, Thorvals, Thorsteinn and Leif. Eric died in 1003 but his son Leif Ericsson became Ruler of Greenland. Leif, his brother Thorvald and his sister Freydis were thought to have been the first Europeans to have landed in North America around 1000 A.D.. Thorvald has been reported to have been killed in a battle with natives in Vineland (Newfoundland, Canada). Norwegian scholars Dr. Helge Ingstad and his wife, Anne Stine Ingstad authenticated L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960 as a Viking settlement. Leif's son Thorgills Leifsson, who was born in the Orkney Islands, became Ruler of Greenland around 1020A.D..

Prior to his departure to North America, Leif Ericsson (Leif the Lucky) brought the first Christian missionary to Greenland. The Nordic colonist in Greenland accepted Christianity in 1000 A.D., which has been confirmed by discoveries of remains of bishopric churches from that period. Greenland created its own diocese in 1124 A.D. at Gardar (present day Igaliku) near Brattahlid (now Qassiarsuk).

Greenland established a self governing republic with the population reaching 6,000 by the 12th century but it failed to achieve political stability. In 1261 A.D. Norway extended its sovereignty to Greenland. Trade between Greenland and Europe began a gradual decline starting in 1370 A.D. and collapsed with the loss of the trade vessel Greenalnd-Knarr in 1380 A.D.. The last official record of the Greenland Norse population was a wedding at the Hvalsey Church in 1408. The historical record is not clear on the reasons, perhaps volcanic eruptions, severe climate, wars with natives or lack of external trade were factors that caused the Norwegian colonists on Greenland to disappear by 1500 A.D.. 

Several hundred years passed before European re-colonization began again in Greenland. Spurred by the arrival in 1714 A.D. of Norwegian Lutheran missionary Hans Egede, now referred to as the Apostle of Greenland. Egede supported by the King Frederick IV of Denmark, set sail for Greenland with three ships on 3.5.Hans Egede1721, accompanied by his wife Gertrud and their children. He was to seek the old Viking colony on Greenland but found no survivors upon his arrival on 3.7.1721. He then began the arduous work of establishing a Danish mission colony on Greenland, which ultimately proved to be the seeds of the present day government. It was not successful at first and by 1733 the Danish government became the primary supporter of both the mission and trade activity.

With great difficulty Egede learned the native Eskimo language and endured the extreme conditions. With the help of the Bergen Company he succeeded in founding the colony of Godthaab (now Nuuk). In addition to his missionary work, his colony established significant commerce with Denmark. During his remarkable work helping overcome a small pox epidemic in 1735, his wife succumbed. His health later deteriorated and he returned to Denmark in 1738. He died on  5.11.1758 after spending his remaining years as Bishop of Greenland, training workers for the Greenland Mission, creating a unique Greenland catechism and writing a book on the natural history of Greenland. His book contained a wonderful map of Greenland that he drew in 1737 as well as extensive descriptions of life in Greenland, Eskimo culture, language, their knowledge of the stars and other information he had learned in his 15 years in Greenland. Egede was made the national saint of Greenland. His son, Paul Hansen Egede remained in Greenland replacing his father as Superintendent until his death on 3.6.1789.

In 1776 a Danish trade monopoly (KGH), similar to the Hudson Bay Company and the Russian-American Company, was established as the Royal Greenland Trade Department (DenRoyal Greenland A.S. Kongelige Grønlandske Handel) to control all trading in the colony. From this point on all Greenland trade of sealskins, train oil, whalebones, narwhale tusks and fox skins was done through the trading company. Initially established to protect Greenland against barter from European whalers, it expanded in 1903 to include halibut, cod and salmon franchises. All administrative and financial affairs of Greenland were managed by KGH until 1908. Although no longer a monopoly, this same company continues to operate today as Royal Greenland A.S., with shipping, fish products and trade divisions. The first confirmed KGH Greenland printed paper currency issues appeared in 1803 under the title of Kongelige Grønlandske Handel(KGH). A handwritten issue of 1801 has been reported but not confirmed. The known notes are pictured starting in section P.A1 - P.A4.

When Norway was ceded to Sweden with the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained Greenland. In 1912 the Danish government assumed full control of the administration of Greenland. In 1932 Norway annexed the east coast (Eric the Red's Land) but withdrew in 1933. On 9.4.1941 Greenland became a protectorate of the United States which ended in May 1945. On 5.6.1953 Greenland became a province of Denmark and it joined the European Community (now the European Union) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute over stringent fishing quotas. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament with Denmark providing control of Greenland's foreign affairs. Greenland currently uses the Danish Krone as its currency.


S Numbers
SIEGs Seddelkatalok, 1874-1970
Ulberg;  Frovin Sieg, 2001
Danmark, Faeroene, Groenland, Island
Norge, Svalbard, Sverige, Finland
WWII Remembered SB Numbers

World War II Remembered: History in Your Hands,
a Numismatic Study

C.Frederick Schwan, Joseph E. Boling
BNR Press, ISBN 0-931960-40-1 ©1995
Thomas Høiland Auctions Thomas Høiland Auctions
Greenland Home Rule Greenland Home Rule
Greenland History Greenland History
Rare Earth Elements Mining
CIA World Factbook - Greenland